Gerson Digital : Germany II

RKD STUDIES

5.4 Landscape Painting

Less complicated and for our study more productive is the picture that landscape painting offers us. At the end of the 17th century we found many Dutch schooled landscapists in Bohemia and Vienna , such as Anton Faistenberger I, Frans de Paula Ferg, Wenzel Lorenz Reiner, Joseph Orient, Johann Jakob Hartmann and the group of Southern German painters.1


1
Christian Hilfgott Brand
Landscape with travelers resting in front of the ruins of an abbey, dated 1756
canvas, oil paint 42,5 x 55 cm
location unknown : Ch. Brand 1756
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1980-11-10 - 1980-11-14, nr. 275

2
Christian Hilfgott Brand
Southern landscape,
canvas, oil paint 140,7 x 218 cm
center right : ....
Hampel Kunstauktionen (München) 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, nr. 207


3
attributed to Christian Hilfgott Brand
Dutch fishing village,
canvas, oil paint 80 x 116 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1926-05-17 - 1926-05-18, nr. 77

4
attributed to Christian Hilfgott Brand
Dutch village at a river,
canvas, oil paint 80 x 116 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1926-05-17 - 1926-05-18, nr. 78


This group found its continuation in Christian Hilfgott Brand (1694-1756), a pupil of Christoph Ludwig Agricola, who made many small landscapes in the taste of Jan Both and Claes Berchem [1-2]. Once he also copied a landscape etching by Adriaen van Ostade.2 Von Frimmel attributes two little paintings to him, which are completely done in the landscape style of Claes Molenaer [3-4].3

Johann Franz Nepomuk Lauterer (1700-1733), a pupil of Joseph Orient, did the same in a charming way and in good taste [5].4 Franz Christoph Janneck (1703-1761) is more Flemish oriented in his landscapes [6-7] and genre paintings and Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl (1697-1762) picked up a wide variety of schools, without a particular preference for the Dutch [8-10].

5
Johann Franz Nepomuk Lauterer
Italianate landscape with travelers and herdsmen crossing a river,
canvas, oil paint 18 x 25,5 cm
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./cat.nr. 5259


6
Franz Christoph Janneck
Landscape with an elegant hunting party and a number of hounds chasing two deers near a river, dated 1728
panel, oil paint 26,9 x 31,6 cm
lower left : FC Janneck Px Ao 1728
Sotheby's (Amsterdam) 2009-05-05, nr. 100

7
Franz Christoph Janneck
Extensive wooded landscape with an elegant hunting party and hounds attacking a wild boar, dated 1728
panel, oil paint 26,9 x 31,6 cm
lower right : FC Janneck Px 1728
Sotheby's (Amsterdam) 2009-05-05, nr. 100


8
Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl
Mountain landscape with a stone bridge,
canvas, oil paint 52,5 x 70 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./cat.nr. 5594

9
Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl
Mountain landscape with a rock arch,
canvas, oil paint 52 x 70 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./cat.nr. 5593


10
Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl
A panoramic winter mountain landscape,
panel, oil paint 27 x 38 cm
in verso : Schinnagl Bavarius pinxit Vienne
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2010-10-13, nr. 492

11
Norbert Grund
Landscape with two travelers, in the background burning buildings,
canvas, oil paint 23,5 x 33,5 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1998-06-10, nr. 294


Norbert Grund (1717-1767) was primarily active in Bohemia.5 Although Franz de Paula Ferg was not his teacher, as was earlier presumed, Grund worked under his influence and received a good dose of French Rococo elegance from him [11-14]. Grund was versatile and well-travelled, so that the Dutch Berchem tradition very soon gave way to other impressions. There are especially many points of similarity with Venetian artists like Francesco Zuccarelli.

12
Norbert Grund
Year market scene,
panel, oil paint 34,5 x 54,5 cm
lower right : NG
Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, inv./cat.nr. 2198


13
Norbert Grund
Landscape with Tobias and the Angel,
panel, oil paint 21 x 26 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2003-03-27, nr. 235

14
Norbert Grund
Landscape with Hagar and the Angel,
panel, oil paint 21 x 26 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2003-03-27, nr. 235


Johann Christian Brand (1722-1795),6 son of the aforementioned Christoph Hilfgott Brand, on the other hand, tends more towards the Dutch way [15-16], although he also copied David Teniers II.7 There are landscapes with ruins, which develop or restyle Berchem’s genre into the Rococo [17-18], river landscapes following the line of Herman Saftleven, Jan Griffier and Christian Georg Schütz [19] and drawings harking back to Jan Both [20]. If two paintings in the Liechtenstein Gallery are rightly attributed to Jakob Friedrich Leclerc (1717-after 1768) [21-22],8 he belongs to the Jan Brueghel imitators, like Johann Jakob Hartmann before him.


15
Johann Christian Brand
Evening landscape, dated 1771
panel, oil paint 29 x 36 cm
location unknown : 1771
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./cat.nr. 4092

16
Johann Christian Brand
Landscape with ruin and rider in the moonlight, dated 1771
panel, oil paint 29 x 36,7 cm
location unknown : 1771
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./cat.nr. 4102


17
Johann Christian Brand
Landscape with a ruin at a stretch of water, dated 1769
panel (oak), oil paint 19,8 x 29 cm
left center : 1769 / Brand
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), inv./cat.nr. 1965

18
Johann Christian Brand
Landscape with a tower, c. 1769
panel (oak), oil paint 19,9 x 29 cm
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), inv./cat.nr. 1964


19
Johann Christian Brand
River landscape with a tower and farmers,
canvas, oil paint 28 x 41 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1998-03-12, nr. 396

20
Johann Christian Brand
Horseman and travellers at a river side,
paper, graphite, grey chalk, grey wash 297 x 213 mm
lower left : Brand junior
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 4470


21
Jakob Friedrich Leclerc or F. Decler
An army advancing through a mountain pass,
canvas, oil paint 48 x 68 cm
Vaduz-Vienna, Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, inv./cat.nr. 368

22
Jakob Friedrich Leclerc or F. Decler
An army camp in the plains, in the distance a battle rages,
canvas, oil paint 48 x 68 cm
Vaduz-Vienna, Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, inv./cat.nr. 368


The German engraver Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) in Paris repeatedly bought paintings by the young Brand.9 Two other Austrians, Franz Edmond Weirotter (1733-1771)10 and Jakob Matthias Schmutzer (1733-1811),11 studied drawing and etching under Wille’s direction in Paris. Weirotter worked among others after Pieter de Molijn [23], Jan van Goyen [24], Aert van der Neer [25 ] -- and Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich. His own inventions are accordingly Dutch [26-28]. Schmutzer also drew and painted some landscapes to the old Dutch recipe [29-31].

23
Franz Edmund Weirotter after Pieter de Molijn
Bridge across a canal: The month May, c. 1760
paper, etching ? x ? mm
lower left : P. Molyn inv. et del.
Cambridge (Massachusetts), Harvard Art Museums, inv./cat.nr. M9618


24
Franz Edmund Weirotter after Jan van Goyen published by Gabriel Huquier
Spring, c. 1760
paper, etching 224 x 314 mm
Whereabouts unknown

25
Franz Edmund Weirotter after Aert van der Neer published by François Basan
Skating in a village, c. 1760
paper, etching, 4th state 310 x 290 mm
lower left : Wandreneer Delin.
Whereabouts unknown


26
Franz Edmund Weirotter
Farm at the riverside with fishermen in a rowing boat, probably after 1765
copper, oil paint 18,5 x 26,5 cm
lower right : F.E. Weirotter
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1974-03-12 - 1974-03-15, nr. 147

27
Franz Edmund Weirotter
Farm at the riverside with fishermen in rowing boats, probably after 1765
copper, oil paint 18,5 x 26,5 cm
bottom left of the middle : F.E. Weirotter
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1974-03-12 - 1974-03-15, nr. 148


28
Franz Edmund Weirotter
View of a peasant village with a large water well, dated 1762
blue paper, pencil, inkt, brush 120 x 183 mm
upper right : F. Weirotter den 1762
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1983-03-22 - 1983-03-28, nr. 598

29
Jakob Matthias Schmutzer
Landscape near Mödling with figures, dated 1795
paper, brush in brown, inkt, black chalk ? x ? mm
lower left : Schmuzer 795
New York City, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv./cat.nr. 2009.411


30
Jakob Matthias Schmutzer
Walkers on a road outside a village, 1811
paper, graphite, brush in grey, grey wash 440 x 550 mm
lower left : I. Schmuzer 1811
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 25178

31
Jakob Matthias Schmutzer
Area near Gablitz south of Riederburg, dated 1794
paper, brush in grey, chalk 437 x 590 mm
lower right : Schmuzer 1794
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 30581


Next to Nicolaes Berchem, Philips Wouwerman was a favourite examplar. August Querfurt (1696-1761) from Wolfenbüttel, 12 who was in Vienna from 1763, stayed close to his example and furthermore seems to have schooled himself by copying [32-33].13 Looking carefully, we can see that Querfurt connected the feathery brushwork of the master’s late style to compositions deriving from early pictures, in the same way Pieter Wouwerman used to do [34-35]. Battle scenes tie into Jan Martsen de Jonghe and Jan Huchtenburg [36]. Apart from some elegant portraits, Querfurth has been thoroughly Dutchified, even in his rare still-lifes [37].


32
Philips Wouwerman
Departure of a hawking aprty, c. 1665
canvas, oil paint 55,7 x 80,4 cm
Saint Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./cat.nr. 836

33
August Querfurt after Philips Wouwerman
Departure of a hawking party,
copper, oil paint 47 x 57 cm
: A. Querfurt
Venice, Museo Correr, inv./cat.nr. I 200


34
August Querfurt
Visit to the farrier,
panel, oil paint 28,5 x 34,5 cm
lower right : A.Q.
Bassenge (Berlin) 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, nr. 6046

35
August Querfurt
Horseman at a resting point in a landscape,
panel, oil paint 27,5 x 34 cm
lower left : A.Q.
Bassenge (Berlin) 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, nr. 6048


36
August Querfurt
A horse market in a hilly landscape,
canvas, oil paint 52 x 58 cm
lower right : A. Qu....
Galerie Fischer (Luzern) 2009-11-11, nr. 1061

37
August Querfurt
Fruit piece with wineglass,
canvas, oil paint 50,5 x 40 cm
lower right : Querfurt
Munich, Galerie Dr. Riedl


The well-travelled Francesco Casanova (1727-1802),14 settled in Vienna from 1783. He schooled himself in Dresden on the numerous works by Philip Wouwerman, which is clearly visible in his paintings, although his style can in no way be described as Wouwerman imitation [38-39]. In Munich we already noticed, how the taste for Wouwerman fell out of fashion at the end of the Rococo and how the ‘bourgeois realistic’ Potter took his place. Wilhelm Kobell worked precisely in this time of transition. In Vienna this stage is represented by Alexander von Dallinger (1783-1844), who apart from this, doesn’t give us cause to consider him further. Only so much needs to be said, that he found the way to nature through Potter’s cows [40-41], although he was more successful in painting horses than the ruminants.15


38
Francesco Casanova
Battle scene of horsemen on a bridge, c. 1780
canvas, oil paint 132 x 200 cm
lower left : F. Casanova
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv./cat.nr. Gemäldegalerie, 1204

39
Francesco Casanova
Battle scene, dated 1792
canvas, oil paint 261 x 377 cm
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1805


40
Alexander von Dallinger
Farmer with cows in the meadow, dated 1831
panel, oil paint 62 x 82,5 cm
lower center : Alexander von Dallinger / Viene fecit 1831
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./cat.nr. 2792

41
Alexander von Dallinger
Three cows with a farmer in a meadow,
panel, oil paint 24,5 x 30,4 cm
location unknown : Alexander Dallinger jacun a son gout
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2014-02-17, nr. 245


Notes

1 [Gerson 1942/1983] See p. 271-272, 276. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson/van Leeuwen et al. 2017-2018, § 6 and 7.

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Prague 1884, p. 35, no. 94. [Van Leeuwen 2018] It concerns a painting on canvas, 32 x 48 cm, of a landscape with a wooden bridge and farmers, after an etching by Adriaen van Ostade. We could not find an image.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Auction Vienna, 17 May 1926, nos. 77-78. [Van Leeuwen 2018] The two paintings obviously were not sold in this auction, because they occurred again in two different auctions: Vienna (Dorotheum) 21-23 June 1926, no. 127 and Vienna (Dorotheum) 22/23 November 1926, no. 1, with the same image and same attribution.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Biermann 1914, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 82, vol. 2, p. XXX. According to an annotation by Marijke de Kinkelder, former curator of the RKD, the painting is based on a composition of Jan Asselijn.

5 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Grund: Vondráčková 2017.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Brand: Krapf 1983.

7 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson probably meant that the rural atmosphere with chatting farmers corresponds somewhat to landscapes by David Teniers II. We did not find any direct derivation from Teniers.

8 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Theodor von Frimmel attributed the painting to a certain F. Decler in his personal copy of Vienna 1885, p. 51 (RKD). This is probably not Jaokob Friedrich Leclerc, who made portraits and still-lifes, e.g. RKDimages 292088.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Wille: Décultot 2009.

10 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Weirotter: Winterberg 1989.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Schmutzer: Zmölnig 2008.

12 [Van Leeuwen 2018] See also § 2.3.

13 [Van Leeuwen 2018] As this painting by Wouwerman was in Paris during Querfurt’s lifetime, Querfurt must have known it through a reproductive print.

14 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Casanova: Kuhn 1984.

15 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson probably referred to paintings by his brother Johann von Dallinger II (1782-1868), who painted horses (e.g. RKDimages 291314).

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