Gerson Digital : Germany II

RKD STUDIES

3.4 Still-Life, Genre and Architectural Painting

The art of the Frankfurt still-life painters Abraham Mignon and Jacob Marrel didn’t die out with the 17th century. One of the first in this field to pick up the tradition of the older Frankfurt masters, and therefore of the old Dutch masters, was the Saftleven adept Christian Georg Schütz I (1718-1791). His flower paintings are usually worth looking at.1

Justus Juncker (1703-1767), who was almost the same age, was a master in this subject. Again it was the collection of Heinrich Jakob baron von Häckel, that brought him into contact with Dutch paintings. In the beginning Juncker preferred to copy the interior scenes of Thomas Wijck and related masters (etching after Wijck of 1749).2 He painted a series of kitchen scenes in the taste of Cornelis Saftleven, Adriaen van Ostade and Thomas Wyck [1-4].3

The still-life element in them gradually took on greater importance, until he at last devoted himself exclusively to still-life and flower painting. They are neat works in the manner of Jan Davidsz de Heem and of Jan van Huijsum [5-8]. From the few words, with which Goethe characterized his art, we feel how Dutch his creations were perceived: ‘Juncker, who very cleanly executed flower- and fruit pieces, still-lifes and quietly occupied people after the manner of the Dutch masters’.

1
Justus Juncker
Kitchen-interior, dated 1765
panel (oak), oil paint 37,6 x 31,5 cm
right : Juncker f 1765
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. SG 124

2
Justus Juncker
Scholar in his study,
panel, oil paint 47 x 55,5 cm
lower left : Juncker fecit
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2013-04-17, nr. 828


3
Justus Juncker
Peasantwoman talks in a yard with a traveler, c. 1765
panel, oil paint 33,6 x 26,9 cm
Christie's (Amsterdam) 1997-06-18, nr. 168

4
Justus Juncker
Housemaid does the dishes in a yard, dated 1765
panel, oil paint 33,6 x 26,9 cm
lower left : Juncker fc 1765
Christie's (Amsterdam) 1997-06-18, nr. 168


5
Justus Juncker
Still life with pear and insects, dated 1765
panel (oak), oil paint 25,8 x 21,4 x 1,0 cm
lower right : Juncker f 1765
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1615

6
Justus Juncker
Still life with apple and insects, dated 1765
panel (oak), oil paint 25,8 x 21,5 x 1,2 cm
lower left : Juncker. f. 1765
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1614


7
Justus Juncker
Fruit still life with grapes and peaches, dated 1762
panel (oak), oil paint 62,3 x 50 cm
lower left : Juncker 1762
Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, inv./cat.nr. 2175

8
Justus Juncker
Still life with ham, roemer, bread and fruit on a cloth-draped table, dated 1764
panel, oil paint 40,5 x 49,5 cm
center right : Juncker f / 1764
Son & Neale Phillips (London (England)) 1991-07-02, nr. 71


His pupil and son-in-law Johann Daniel Bager (1734-1815) was rightly praised, as his still-lifes of the 1780s would have done full justice to a Willem van Aelst and Abraham Mignon [9-11]. His portraits are not in the way of the old masters and his depictions of interiors, especially the rendering of the painting cabinet of the Frankfurt collector Gogel II, are constructed according to Flemish prescriptions [12].4

9
Johann Daniel Bager
Fruit still life, before 1805
copper, oil paint 38,8 x 44,5 cm
lower left : J Daniel Bager F
Sotheby's (London (England)) 1997-12-03 - 1997-12-04, nr. 139


10
Johann Daniel Bager
Fruit still life with a stag beetle, dated 1778
panel (oak), oil paint 66,9 x 51,3 cm
upper right : Johann.Daniel Bager fecit. 1778
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 695

11
Johann Daniel Bager
Fruit still life, dated 1780 and 1781
panel (oak), oil paint 67,5 x 51,5 cm
left center : J:D: Bager: fecit Anno: 1780 et: 1781 à Francfort
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 696


13
Johann Christian Benjamin Nothnagel
Flowers in a vase and fruits on a wooden table, dated 1762
unknown, oil paint ? x ? cm
center right : J.C.B. / Nothnagel / 1762
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt

12
Christian Stöcklin (I) and Johann Daniel Bager
The painting collection of Johann Noë Gogel I (1715-1781) and Heinrich Sebastian Hüsgen (1745-1802), dated 1776
panel, oil paint 23,5 x 28 cm
Private collection


A brother of Johann Andreas Benjamin Nothnagel, Johann Christian Benjamin Nothnagel (1734-?), is lauded by Von Gwinner as a flower painter [13].5 The amateur and collector Andreas Joseph Chandelle (1743-1820) copied his own picture collection in pastel [14-17];6 especially highlighted are his copies of dead rooster and hares by Abraham Mignon and Jan Weenix ‘with […] the many grains in the wood’, in other words the rendition of a trompe-l’oeil painting.7


14
Hendrick ter Brugghen
Singing lute player, dated 1624
canvas, oil paint 101,6 x 74,9 cm
upper right : HTBrugghen fecit 1624
London, National Gallery (London), inv./cat.nr. 6347

15
Johan van Bronchorst
Woman playing a guitar, dated 1650
canvas, oil paint 102 x 81 cm
upper left : J Bronchorst fecit 1650
London, art dealer Rafael Valls Limited


16
Andreas Joseph Chandelle after Hendrick ter Brugghen
Man playing a lute, dated 1780
unknown, pastel 40,6 x 33 cm
bottom (positional attribute) : A J Chandell f 1780
Düsseldorfer Auktionshaus (Düsseldorf) 2017-11-22 - 2017-11-25, nr. 529

17
Andreas Joseph Chandelle after Johan van Bronchorst
Young woman with a guitar, dated 1780
unknown, pastel 40,6 x 33 cm
bottom (positional attribute) : A J Chandell f 1780
Düsseldorfer Auktionshaus (Düsseldorf) 2017-11-22 - 2017-11-25, nr. 529


A speciality for Frankfurt were the depictions of church interiors. Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern (1738-1819),8 a pupil of Christian Georg Schütz and Johann Andreas Benjamin Nothnagel, excelled in this. He also visited the academy of Salzdahlum and worked in Hamburg and Darmstadt. He must have studied Dutch art everywhere, as he exclusively painted church interiors in the style of the Neeffs and the Steenwijcks, who had been in Frankfurt. Usually they are fantasy buildings [18-19], but sometimes he also strictly followed the example of the churches of Frankfurt [20-24].9

18
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern
Church interior, dated 1776
copper, oil paint 31 x 42 cm
lower left : JLEM 1776 pinx.
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. hmf.B.2015.002


19
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern
Interior of a Gothic cathedral with elegant figures, dated 1777
panel, oil paint 30,3 x 38,8 cm
lower left : MORGENSTERN/jun:pinx:/1777
Christie's (London (England)) 2006-04-28, nr. 5

20
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern
Interior of the Frankfurt cathedral lighted during Christmas, dated 1808
copper, oil paint 53,5 x 62 cm
lower left : JLE Morgenstern, pinx 1808 im 70ten Jahre
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. B 1822


21
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern
Interior of the St Leonhard church in Frankfurt am Main, dated 1782
panel (oak), oil paint 34,2 x 39,1 cm
lower left : JMorgenstern / pinx. 1782
Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, inv./cat.nr. IV-00339

22
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern
Interior of the Frankfurt cathedral at daylight, dated 1807
copper, oil paint 54 x 63 cm
lower left : JLM M pinxit 1807
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. B 362


23
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern and Johann Friedrich Morgenstern
Morgenstern'sches Miniaturcabinet I with 65 miniatures after original paintings, 1803-1843
panel, oil paint 96 x 138 cm
several : Each miniature copy is signed, dated and inscribed with the name of the painter of the original and with the dimensions of the original.
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. B 81:12

24
Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern and Johann Friedrich Morgenstern and Carl Morgenstern
Morgenstern'sches Miniaturcabinet II with 75 miniatures after original paintings, 1796-1830
panel, oil paint 96 x 138 cm
several : Each miniature copy is signed, dated and inscribed with the name of the painter of the original and with the dimensions of the original.
Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, inv./cat.nr. IV-1980-4


Morgenstern was a restorer of paintings, which gave him the idea to copy his own works on a small scale and to put these tiny versions in three cupboards, after the example of the Prehn cabinet. His son Johann Friedrich Morgenstern (1777-1844) added a further 48 copies and his grandson Karl yet another, so that the Cabinet, when it was sold in 1857 to England, contained around 200 copies, half of which are after Dutch paintings. In Gwinner all the names are listed, which gives us an overview of the kind of Dutch paintings in the Frankfurt collections of the time: the minor masters of landscape and genre prevail.10

The Swiss Christian Stöcklin I (1741-1795) settled in 1764 in Frankfurt and painted imaginary church interiors in a similar style [25-27]. It is said, that that he learned architectural painting in Italy with Antonio Galli di Bibiena, but his church paintings from Frankfurt are no less Netherlandish than those of Morgenstern, who occasionally provided his works with staffage figures. A younger Friedrich Stöcklin (1770-1828) cultivated this genre somewhat less schematically even in a later era [28-29].

25
Christian Stöcklin (I)
Interior of a picture gallery, signed 1775
panel, oil paint 32,3 x 37,5 cm
lower left : Stöcklein Pinxit 1775
New York City, Otto Naumann Ltd.


26
Christian Stöcklin (I)
Church interior, dated 1786
panel, oil paint 25 x 27,5 cm
lower center : Stöcklin.Pinxit.1786
Dorotheum 1995-10-15, nr. 173

27
Christian Stöcklin (I)
Church interior with figures, dated 1780
panel, oil paint 27 x 34 cm
lower center : Stöcklin. Pinxit/ 1780
Bonhams (London (England)) 2010-04-28, nr. 47


28
Friedrich Stöcklin
Interior of a fantasized gothic church,
panel, oil paint 30 x 27,5 cm
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2003-04-08, nr. 266

29
Friedrich Stöcklin
Interior of a fantasized church,
panel, oil paint 30 x 27,5 cm
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2003-04-08, nr. 266


Notes

1 [Van Leeuwen 2018] We could not trace flower still-lifes by Schütz, except from some overdoor pieces in the Summer Palace in Greiz, attributed to his workshop (images in the Bildindex).

2 [Van Leeuwen 2018] We could not retrieve the etching, also mentioned in Thieme/Becker 1907-1950: ‘Gelehrter an seinem Pult’, of 1749. There are several paintings of the subject (e.g. RKDimages 61048, 254454, 262733, 262735, 266020, 290942), as well as a drawing (RKDimages 290940). Heraeus quite rightly states that it is only the subject in general that links Juncker to Thomas Wijck. Unlike Juncker's quiet study rooms, Wijck's interiors are overstuffed with accessories, and convey in their chaos a different, negatively charged meaning of alchemy and scholarship. Rather, Juncker's ‘scholar’ usually points to the knowledge of scholarly representations and interior scenes by Johannes Vermeer and Gerard Dou (Heraeus 2003, p. 95-96).

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Among the landscape painters there were also masters of the interior scenes (Franz Roos, J.A. Herrlein a.o.).

4 [Van Leeuwen 2018] The painting is now attributed to Chrisitan Stöcklin (the interior) and Johann Daniel Bager (the figures). Gallwitz/Ziemke 1982, p. 32, ill.

5 [Van Leeuwen 2018] His acceptance painting for the guild in 1862, signed J.C.B. Nothnagel 1762 was a flower piece in the manner of Jacob Marrel. In 1862 it was hanging in the Kaiserstiege (Gwinner 1862, p. 361); in 1914 in the Friedhofskommission of the town hall (Bangel 1914, p. 89, note 2). Kölsch 2005, cat.no. 5. I am grateful to Wolfgang Cillessen of the Historisches Museum in Frankfurt for sending us the image, which, as far as I know not has been published before.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Chandelle made 112 copies in pastel after paintings in his own collection, which were auctioned in June 1843 (Hohm 2016; Jeffares 2006/2018). Among them were these paintings by Hendrick ter Brugghen and Johannes Jansz. Bronckhorst (not Jan Gerritz van Bronckhorst). The provenance of the Chandelle collection of these paintings has not been published before. It is clear that the Ter Brugghen from the National Gallery was with Chandelle, and not one of the other versions, as Chandelle’s copy shows light colored cords, whereas the cords in the other versions are dark. The painting by Johannes Jansz. Bronckhorst served as its counterpart; Chandelle had them framed equally. In order to fit them together better, Chandelle (or a previous owner) overpainted the window in the background. The overpaint was removed by art dealer Rafael Valls in 1992, who sold the work as a Jan Gerritz van Bronckhorst.

7 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson quotes Hüsgen: ‘so wie auch einen toten Hasen mit einer daneben stehenden Flinte von Joh. Weenix, mit all dem seinen Pelz und den vielen Masern im Holz’ (Hüsgen 1780, p. 205).

8 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On the Morgenstern family: Eichler 1999.

9 [Gerson 1942/1983] Paintings i.e. in the Historical Museum in Frankfurt; Schapire 1904; Morgenstern copied also many works by Seekatz.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gwinner 1862, p. 389-396.

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