Gerson Digital : Germany II

RKD STUDIES

3.3 Landscape Painters

A curious representative of the romantic Holland-mania is George Heinrich Hergenröder (1736- 1799), who was active in Offenbach and Frankfurt. His spelunks and caves in the style of Abraham van Cuylenborch, Rombout van Troyen and such-like masters must have been well known in their time [1-4]. Valley landscapes from the vicinity of Frankfurt are modelled on the pattern of Christian. Georg Schütz, which in no way means that they were modern pictures.1


1
Georg Heinrich Hergenröder
Interior of a grotto with figures, dated 17..
panel, oil paint 33 x 25,5 cm
location unknown : GH Hergenröder 17..
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2010-10-13, nr. 523

2
Georg Heinrich Hergenröder
Interior of a grotto with soldiers, dated 17..
panel, oil paint 33 x 25,5 cm
location unknown : GH Hergenröder 17..
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2010-10-13, nr. 523


3
Georg Heinrich Hergenröder
Robbers in a den of thieves, 1780s
panel (oak) 20,7 x 26,6 cm
Kassel (Hessen), Neue Galerie (Kassel), inv./cat.nr. GK 746 (1875/760)

4
Georg Heinrich Hergenröder
Cave with fountain with women bathing,
panel (oak), oil paint 19,8 x 23,5 cm
lower left : 1216
Kassel (Hessen), Neue Galerie (Kassel), inv./cat.nr. GK 747 (1875/761)


The landscapes of Christian Georg Schütz I (1708-1791)2 follow a well-known and proven model to wit: they are direct continuations of Herman Saftleven’s Rhine landscapes [5-7] (ill. 92). ‘Schütz, who in the way of Saftleven, painstakingly revised the Rhine areas ’, Goethe remarked, much to the point. From Hüsgen we learn, that Schütz got to know and admire the paintings by Saftleven in the cabinet of Heinrich Jakob Baron von Häckel (c. 1682-1760).3

Von Gwinner was of the opinion that his works, though not so fine, surpass their models ‘by a greater freedom, force and warmth of the brush’; one should not form too negative a view of him based on the many works falsely attributed to the artist. We can easily admit that the ‘real’ Schütz paintings are very pretty representations of the Rhine area, and that he enriched the compositions of Saftleven’s models with a certain admixture of German romanticism. Schütz also painted landscapes with ruins in the manner of Frederik de Moucheron and his followers [8-9]; the night effects of Aert van der Neer are also echoed [10]. The Goethe Museum in Frankfurt retains a view of this city by him. The landscape itself with a forest lake in the foreground could have been lifted without alteration from a Ruisdael painting [11].

5
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
River landscape at morning light,
panel (oak), oil paint 51,7 x 78,8 cm
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 596


6
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
Panoramic landscape, dated 1763
panel, oil paint 45 x 53 cm
Würzburg, Kunsthandel Albrecht Neuhaus

7
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
River landscape with castles, city view and shipping,
paper on cardboard, aquarel paint (watercolor), gouache (material/technique) 195 x 245 mm
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1973-09-18 - 1973-09-21, nr. 110


8
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
View of Bad Pyrmont from the North, dated 1774
canvas, oil paint 70,4 x 90,5 cm
lower right : Schüz fecit / 1774
Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, inv./cat.nr. IV-1998-004

9
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
Rhine landscape with farmers watering their cattle near a ruinous castle, dated 1775
copper, oil paint ? x ? cm
lower center : Schüz fecit / 1775
Stuker (Bern (Switzerland)) 2017-06-15 - 2017-06-20, nr. 2053[b]


10
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
River vailley in the moonlight, probablyc. 1765
canvas, oil paint 29 x 39 cm
lower center : 'SCHüZ. / inv. et. fec
Christie's (London (England)) 2013-10-31, nr. 131

11
Christian Georg Schütz (I)
Wooded landscape near the 'Stralenberger Hof' in the vicinity Frankfurt am Main, dated 1780
copper, oil paint 52,5 x 41,8 cm
lower right : Schütz fecit. / 1780
Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurter Goethe-Haus mit Goethe-Museum, inv./cat.nr. IV-016800


His eldest son, Franz Schütz (1751-1781), who seems to have painted very little, continued his father’s painting in the Saftleven and Both-Moucheron style [12-13], at least until 1777, in which year the patron from Basel, Johann Rudolf Burckhardt (1750-1813) brought him over to Switzerland to have him work in the Alps and Upper Italy. The second son, Johann Georg Schütz (1755-1813) pursued another direction; he occupied himself with the works by Rubens in Düsseldorf and during a stay in Rome he studied classical art [14]. Finally we have to mention Christian Georg Schütz II (‘the cousin’, 1758-1823), who imitated the Italianate Dutch masters and furthermore painted topographically correct Rhine views [15], which do not strictly adhere to the Saftleven parameters any longer.


12
Franz Schütz
Rhine landscape with the ruin of a Gothic church, c. 1775
panel, oil paint 21,2 x 29,3 cm
Koblenz (Germany), Mittelrhein-Museum, inv./cat.nr. MRM M 51

13
Franz Schütz
Rhine landscape with the ruin of a gateway,
canvas, oil paint 39,3 x 45,8 cm
Koblenz (Germany), Mittelrhein-Museum, inv./cat.nr. MRM M 49


14
Johann Georg Schütz
Two satyrs looking at nymphs taking a bath, dated 1787
canvas, oil paint 73 x 61 cm
lower center : J.G.Schüz / 1787
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2011-10-12, nr. 637

15
Johann Georg Schütz
View of the Drachenfels looking downstream from south of Oberwinter, dated 1799
oil paint ? x ? cm
lower left : Schütz pinxit 1799
Bonn, private collection Sammlung RheinRomantik, inv./cat.nr. 138


To the followers of the Schütz family, Von Gwinner counts Johann Jacob Moevius (1767-1836) [21], Franz Hochecker (1730-1782)4 [16-17] and Peter Kessler (1771-1845), while Karl Franz Kraul (1754-1796) is said to have studied and copied especially the landscapes of Jacob van Ruisdael [18-20].


16
Franz Hochecker
Rhine landscape with a town on the shore with many human activities,
canvas, oil paint 27 x 35,5 cm
below, right of the middle : F.H.-invenit et pinx.
Hampel Kunstauktionen (München) 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, nr. 206

17
Franz Hochecker
Rhine landscape with a castle on the bank with many human activities,
canvas, oil paint 27 x 35,5 cm
Hampel Kunstauktionen (München) 2011-09-15 - 2011-09-16, nr. 206


18
Karl Franz Kraul
Forest landscape with sand road and farm, ca 1784
panel (oak), oil paint 18,5 x 25,4 cm
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. Pr331

19
Karl Franz Kraul and Johann Georg Pforr
Entrance to the forest near Frankfurt, dated 1786
panel (oak), oil paint 68 x 90,3 cm
lower right : CF Kraul et Pforr / 1786
Kassel (Hessen), Hessisches Landesmuseum (Kassel), inv./cat.nr. GK 1351


20
Karl Franz Kraul
Oak forest with two straw huts, in the foreground a stream with two farmers in a boat,
brown-grey paper, brush in black, pen in black ink 187 x 268 mm
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum

21
Johann Jacob Moevius
View of the Church of Saint John in Frankfurt-Bornheim, dated 1822
panel (oak), oil paint 108 x 93 cm
lower left : J. Moevius 1822
Auktionshaus Arnold (Frankfurt am Main) 2002-11-23 - 2002-12-07, nr. 805


To this trend in Frankfurt landscape painting, more names could be added, especially when we might also include somewhat Flemish oriented masters like Johann Andreas Herrlein (1723-1796) [22-24].

Let us call to mind one more time, that the younger members of the Roos family, like Johann Melchior Roos and Joseph Roos, kept up the tradition of ‘their house’ in Frankfurt and therefore perpetuated the Dutch-romantic cattle piece until well into the 18th century. But they were by no means the only ones. Johann Nikolaus Lentzner (1711-1749), whose wallpaper factory passed, by inheritance, to the above-mentioned Nothnagel, and Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée (1719-1760) [25-26] are nowadays little known painters who worked in the style of Johann Heinrich Roos and Nicolaes Berchem.5

22
Johann Andreas Herrlein
Hilly forest with ramblers in evening shine,
oil paint 28,5 x 37,5 cm
lower left : JA Herrlein inv pinxit
Florian Seidel (Ahlden) 2009-09-12 - 2009-09-13, nr. 1277


23
Johann Andreas Herrlein
Forest landscape with a robbery, after 1763
panel, oil paint 22,7 x 32 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./cat.nr. 5874

24
Johann Andreas Herrlein
Forest landscape with travelers resting, after 1763
panel, oil paint 22,7 x 32 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./cat.nr. 5870


25
Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée
Moonlit landscape with riders and bystanders by a fire,
canvas, oil paint 17,7 x 20,9 cm
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. •hmf.Pr438

26
Friedrich Wilhelm Ducrée
Riders preparing for the falconry,
canvas, oil paint 17,8 x 20 cm
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt, inv./cat.nr. hmf.Pr437


Von Gwinner especially praised the landscapes of Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt (1721-1772) [27-28], who also was in the service of Duke Anton Ulrich of Sachsen-Meiningen (1687-1763).6 Johann Gottlieb Prestel (1739-1808) reproduced some of his drawings, which confirm Von Gwinner’s judgement [29-30].7 The animals in particular are captured very well and seen ‘in a Dutch way’, so that we may confidently assume that Schütz and others frequently availed themselves of his talents as a painter of staffage [31]. The engravers from Frankfurt like the Prestels, Jeremias Paul Schweyer (1754-1813) and Johann Kaspar Friedrich Neubauer (1798-1851) had a considerable share in the dispersal of Dutch art.

To let the representatives of another direction have their say, let us consider Johann Georg Pforr (1745-1798), who seems to have had the nickname ‘the German Wouwerman’ [32-34].8 He spent his first years in Kassel, where he became friends with Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. Von Gwinner contested the idea that we count Pforr among the imitators of Wouwerman, as ‘his only example was nature’.9 In a way we have to agree with him. Though one clearly notices the reminiscences of Aelbert Cuyp and Phlips Wouwerman in his paintings of horses, he succeeded in achieving a picture with a personal view.10 Johann Friedrich Morgenstern (1777-1844), a pupil of Klengel, painted panorama landscapes, which do not transcend the topographical representation [35].

27
Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt
Arcadian landscape with shepherds and cattle at the bank of a river, dated 1767
panel, oil paint 30 x 37 cm
lower left : W.F. Hirt 1767
Van Ham Kunstauktionen (Keulen) 2009-11-20, nr. 148

28
Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt
Forest landscape with travellers, dated 1750
panel (oak), oil paint 41,5 x 60 cm
lower left : W. F. Hirt. / fecit 1750
Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, inv./cat.nr. 1741


29
Regina Katharina Quarry after Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt
Shepherd with goats and sheep resting in a landscape, c. 1779
paper, aquatint 359 x 495 mm
Memmingen, MEWO Kunsthalle Memmingen

30
Regina Katharina Quarry after Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt
Shepherd with cattle at a ruin, c. 1779
paper, aquatint 375 x 508 mm
Memmingen, MEWO Kunsthalle Memmingen


31
Christian Georg Schütz (I) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt
Landscape with classical ruin, a bust of the artist and the St. Mary's church of Gelnhausen in the background, before 1772
copper, oil paint 40,5 x 48,8 cm
lower right : Schutz. f.
Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum Frankfurt

32
Johann Georg Pforr
Farmer with a gray horse on the reins and a horse rolling in the grass, dated 1789
paper, gouache (material/technique) 485 x 372 mm
lower right : "J: G: Pforr. 1789./."
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 6150


33
Johann Georg Pforr
A market for horses, dated 1784
panel, oil paint 39,5 x 58,4 cm
lower center : J.G. Pforr / 1784 / Frankfurt
Wallersdorf, art dealer J.F. Hochleitner

34
Johann Georg Pforr
Horse being led to water, dated 1794
panel (oak), oil paint 52 x 70,5 cm
lower left : J.G. Pforr / 1794
Oldenburg (Niedersachsen), Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg, inv./cat.nr. LMO Inv. 15.716


35
Johann Friedrich Morgenstern
Landscape with a town in the distance (Frankfurt?), dated 1806
canvas, oil paint 99,3 x 71,2 cm
bottom (positional attribute) : Joh: Fried: Morgenstern fec: 1806
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. HM 55


Notes

1 [Gerson 1942/1983] Kellner 1934.

2 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On C.G. Schütz I: Wettengl 1992.

3 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Hüsgen 1780, p. 182 187, esp. p. 183-184. On Von Häckel: Svenningsen 2016.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Hochecker was married to the sister of Christian Georg Schütz I. Nine works in the Bildindex.

5 [Van Leeuwen 2018] According to Gwinner 1862, p. 279-280, who also mentioned the two illustrated panels from the Prehn’schen cabinet, which are in the manner of Philips Wouwerman.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson erroneously stated Duke Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig (1633-1714).

7 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson quoted Gwinner 1862, p. 255. The aquatint prints after Hirt’s drawings ‘in the manner of Heinrich Roos’ are not executed by Prestel, as Gwinner wrote, but by his pupil Regina Katharina Quarry, born Schönecker (c. 1862-1821). Kiermeier-Debre/Vogel et al. 2008, p. 214, no. 1522, ill. on p. 165, p. 215, no. 1530, ill. on p. 181.

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fr.W. Ducrée and J.N. Lentner are said to have painted also pictures in the taste of Wouwerman. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Indeed the paintings by Ducrée which are illustrated are in the manner of Philips Wouwerman.

9 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gwinner 1862, p. 337-342.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Biermann 1914, nos. 903-906. [Van Leeuwen 2018] RKDimages 290812-290814. For an interpretation by Pforr of The Bull by Paulus Potter (Mauritshuis, The Hague): RKDimages 290791.

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