Gerson Digital : Germany II

RKD STUDIES

2.3 Portrait and Landscape Painters in Braunschweig

The artistic life at the court of neighboring Braunschweig was, just like in Kassel, in close contact with the princely collection in Salzdahlum. Artists from Kassel came to Brunswick and vice versa. The portraitist Magnus Quitter, who came from a family in Kassel, first found employment as court painter and gallery director of Salzdahlum, before he succeeded his brother as mining inspector (!) in Kassel. Dietrich Ernst Andreae (1680-1730), whom we have met already, was active as a portrait painter in Kassel for two years (1717-1719). As a pupil of Jan van Bentum, he had absorbed some Dutch influence. His self-portrait in Braunschweig may serve as an example of this: it unites Rembrandt and the Haarlem tradition [1].1

Johann Georg Ziesenis (Copenhagen 1716-Hannover 1776) was in Holland for a long time as a portraitist, but Dutch 17th-century art had no impact on his work [2-3].2

1
Dietrich Ernst Andreae
Self-portrait of Dietrich Ernst Andreae (c. 1680-1734) in green dressing gown, between 1717-1719
canvas, oil paint 78 x 64 cm
lower right : Andre
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 636


2
Johann Georg Ziesenis
Portrait of Stadholder Willem V (1748-1806)., c. 1768-1769
canvas, oil paint 141 x 101 cm
The Hague, Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, inv./cat.nr. 462



This could rather be said of Johann Christian Samuel Gohl (1743-1829), who was descended from a Dutch family, in particular of his Self-Portrait with Shadowed Face (Braunschweig) [4].3 In self-portraits we frequently notice the impact of Rembrandt. Philipp Wilhelm Oeding (1697-1781), a pupil of Johann Kupezky, took over the smooth surface treatment and warm light, at that time the epitome of Rembrandt’s art [5].


4
Johann Christian Samuel Gohl
Self-Portrait of Johann Christian Gohl (1743-1829), dated 1778
canvas, oil paint 71,5 x 59,5 cm
location unknown : J. Gohl se ipse pinxit 1778
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 711

5
Philipp Wilhelm Oeding
Self-portrait of the artist Philipp Wilhelm Oeding (1697-1781) with the portrait of his wife Helena, between c. 1740-1750
canvas, oil paint 110 x 84 cm
bottom (positional attribute) : Oeding malt sich / und / seine Frau
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 610


Ludwig Wilhelm Busch (1703-1772), a pupil of Andreae and for a while head of the Gallery at Salzdahlum, painted in the style of Rembrandt [6-7], Gerard Dou [8] and Adriaen van Ostade. His paintings are very rare nowadays, but some etchings after Rembrandt support this oral tradition [9-12].4

6
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch
The Liberation of Peter by an angel from prison (Acts 12:6-10),
canvas, oil paint 45 x 61 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum


7
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch after Jan Lievens
Portrait of a young man in profile (self-portrait of Jan Lievens),
canvas, oil paint 62 x 46 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1035

8
Johann Ludwig Blok after Ludwig Wilhelm Busch
A doctor in a window, dated 1785
paper, mezzotint 233 x 154 mm
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Library, inv./cat.nr. Graph. A1: 212


9
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch after Rembrandt
Head of an old man in a fur cap,
paper, etching 53 x 40 mm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. LWBusch WB 3.8

10
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch pasticcio after Rembrandt
Abraham and Isaac just before the sacrifice,
paper, etching 108 x 78 mm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. LWBusch AB 3.19


11
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch
Saint Jerome,
paper, etching 109 x 78 mm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. LWBusch AB 3.21

12
Ludwig Wilhelm Busch pasticcio after Rembrandt
The flight into Egypt,
paper, etching 107 x 78 mm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. LWBusch WB 3.13


The recollection of Dutch examples revived more clearly and stronger in animal and landscape painters. August Querfurth (1696-1761) was an excellent painter of horses and battles which are related to Philips Wouwerman [13-19],5 Jan Martszen de Jonge and Jan Huchtenburg [20-24].6 He was the son of the Braunschweig court-painter Tobias Querfurth, who married the daughter of painter Joachim Luhn, who is well known to us. We will encounter August Querfurt again when we come to speak about Vienna, where he settled in 1743.7

13
August Querfurt after Philips Wouwerman
Barn interior with a hunting company departing,
panel (oak), oil paint 40 x 57 cm
lower center : A. Querfurt
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 609


14
August Querfurt after Philips Wouwerman
Departure of a hawking party,
copper, oil paint 47 x 57 cm
: A. Querfurt
Venice, Museo Correr, inv./cat.nr. I 200

15
August Querfurt
The departure of a company of riders,
copper, oil paint 47 x 57 cm
Venice, Museo Correr, inv./cat.nr. I 201

16
August Querfurt
Visit to the farrier,
panel, oil paint 28,5 x 34,5 cm
lower right : A.Q.
Bassenge (Berlin) 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, nr. 6046

17
August Querfurt
Horseman at a resting point in a landscape,
panel, oil paint 27,5 x 34 cm
lower left : A.Q.
Bassenge (Berlin) 2016-05-26 - 2016-05-28, nr. 6048


18
August Querfurt
Departure for the falkonry,
panel, oil paint 25 x 33 cm
Lempertz Heberle (Keulen) 1905-11-27 - 1905-11-28, nr. 71

19
August Querfurt
Hunting party resting at a house with a smoking chimney,
panel, oil paint 25 x 33 cm
Lempertz Heberle (Keulen) 1905-11-27 - 1905-11-28, nr. 72


20
August Querfurt
The Battle at Cornia on July 4, 1738, 1751-1752
canvas, oil paint 118 x 215 cm
Bad Arolsen, private collection Schloss Arolsen

21
August Querfurt
The Battle at Meadia on July 15, 1738, 1751-1752
canvas, oil paint 118 x 215 cm
Bad Arolsen, private collection Schloss Arolsen


22
August Querfurt
The Battle at Cornia on July 22, 1739, 1751-1752
canvas, oil paint 118 x 215 cm
Bad Arolsen, private collection Schloss Arolsen

23
August Querfurt
The Battle at Panzowa on August 1, 1739, 1751-1752
canvas, oil paint 118 x 215 cm
Bad Arolsen, private collection Schloss Arolsen


The two Weitsches, father and son, are curious representatives of the Dutch spirit in Germany. Johann Friedrich Weitsch (1723-1803),8 a.k.a. Pascha-Weitsch, copied the landscape paintings in the Gallery of Salzdahlum. More in line with contemporary taste he followed Frederik de Moucheron rather than Jacob Ruisdael [25-26]. In the beginning he only painted small paintings in the style of these masters and animal paintings after Paulus Potter and in the manner of Adriaen van de Velde and Johann Heinrich Roos, but through the years he also painted more impressive works. The strange thing is however, that he saw nature with Dutch eyes. When he paints a subject from the erstwhile forest at Querum near Braunschweig [27-28], one believes to see a composition in the manner of Jacob van Ruisdael, to such an extent had he familiarized himself with the technique and the conception of Dutch art. From 1788 he was also the head of the gallery of Salzdahlum. Again, one gets the impression that the Dutch landscapists served as a justification for 18th-century artists who wanted to paint a realistic-romantic landscape during a time in which elegant, French portraiture or conversation pieces were the only presentable thing.

24
Martin van Meytens (II) and August Querfurt
Portrait of Charles August Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1704-1763), in 1753
canvas, oil paint 433 x 322 cm
Bad Arolsen, private collection Schloss Arolsen


25
Johann Friedrich Weitsch
View of the so-called Rosstrappe in the Bode valley in the Harz, Thuringia, dated 1769
canvas, oil paint 55 x 72 cm
lower left : F. Weitsch. F. 1769
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 624

26
Johann Friedrich Weitsch
Mountainous landscape with waterfall, dated 1795
canvas, oil paint 55 x 47 cm
lower left : F. Weitsch.1795
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. GG769


27
Johann Friedrich Weitsch
View of the oak forest at Querum, dated 1784
canvas, oil paint 55 x 72 cm
lower right : F. Weitsch 1784
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 711

28
Johann Friedrich Weitsch
Shepherdess in the Querumer oak forest, dated 1792
canvas, oil paint 107 x 128 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. GG 625


His son Friedrich Georg Weitsch (1758-1828)9 copied his father, Paulus Potter and Philip Peter Rosa da Tivoli. In 1776 he was a pupil of Johann Wilhelm Tischbein I in Kassel and will also have enhanced his schooling through the examples of the Dutch masters in the gallery there. His landscapes are even more romantic than those of Ruisdael. However, he was mainly a portraitist and history painter. In this area one could also follow the Dutch manner. This is demonstrated in the portrait of his father with candlelight (Braunschweig) in the manner of Gerard van Honthorst and Gerard Dou [29] and the fresh portrait of Aloys Ludwig Hirt (1759-1837) before a bright wall (collection Fürstenberg in Donaueschingen, from the year 1785) [30], which seeks to emulate Jan de Bray and Pieter de Grebber from Haarlem.10

Weitsch sr. was also in contact with Johann Georg Wille in Paris, who sent his pupil J.L.L.C . Zentner (active c. 1783-1794) to Braunschweig to make prints after Weitsch’s paintings. Weitsch jr. provided paintings by his father and old Dutch masters to the collector Bernhard Hausmann (1784-1873) in Hannover.11 His knowledge of old painting may explain why he was sent to Paris in 1815, to reclaim the robbed art works.

29
Friedrich Georg Weitsch
Portrait of Pascha Johann Friedrich Weitsch (1723-1803), the artist's father, dated 1797
canvas, oil paint 89 x 72 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. GG 634


30
Friedrich Georg Weitsch
The archeologist and art historian Aloys Ludwig Hirt (1759-1837), 1785-1787
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Private collection

31
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Company in an interior,
panel, oil paint 18 x 27 cm
location unknown : JHR
London, Arnot Galleries


In the case of the landscapist and genre painter Johann Heinrich Ramberg (1763-1840) from Hannover, one doesn’t suspect imitation of Dutch masters. It is true-blue bourgeois German art. Why then, out of the blue, he painted a soldier’s scene after Pieter de Bloot, remains an open question [31].12


Notes

1 [Gerson 1942/1983] See p. 235. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson/Van Leeuwen et al 2017-2018, § 2.13.

2 [Van Leeuwen 2018] He copied a portrait by Ferdinand Bol in the Gallery in Düsseldorf in 1756, before he went to The Hague (RKDimages 284603 and 284602). On Ziesenis: Schrader 1995.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustration in Biermann 1914, no. 489.

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] The collector Hausmann (p. 257), remarked on a copy after Rembrandt’s Disciples at Emmaus: ‘I believe, that it is painted by J.C. (= L.W.) Busch, who by his very successful imitations of Rembrandt, especially in his sketches, has often fooled us (remark by Mr. A. Lemke in Hannover). A small painting in the taste of Gerard Dou was in The Hague art-market in 1941.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Good examples of Wouwerman imitation are in Turin, nos. 316-317; Braunschweig no. 609; Auction Cologne, 27 November 1905, no. 72, to name but a few. [Van Leeuwen 2018] So far we have not retrieved images of the paintings in Turin. Instead, we added other examples.

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] See Querfurth’s battle-scenes of 1752 and the battle scene in the background of the portrait of Prince Karl von Waldeck in Arolsen (illustrations in Kramm 1938).

7 [Van Leeuwen 2018] See § 5.4.

8 [Van Leeuwen 2018} On J.F. Weitsch: König-Lein 1998.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On F.G. Weitsch: Lacher 2005.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations of Weitsch sr. & jr. a.o. in Biermann 1914, nos. 467, 938-939; Stechow 1926, no. 196, with illustration; it is of course impossible to depict both Weitsch’s as mere Ruisdael epigones. Straightforward topographical landscapes stand alongside compositions in the taste of Gaspar Dughet.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Hausmann: Gatenbröcker 2005.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Art dealer G. Arnot, London 1938. [Van Leeuwen 2018] The straight connection to Pieter de Bloot escapes us.

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